Rev. Lyman Beecher's Six Sermons on Intemperance describes those "addicted to sin" of intemperance, notes presence of "insatiable desire to drink," and describes warning signs of addiction to distilled spirits.
Dr. Samuel Woodward calls for creation of inebriate asylums. The idea was to punish these people for their disorders and provide them with a strong reason to stop using and start living their lives in a new way. Interventions for alcoholism involved yelling and even physical abuse, and the treatment that followed used many of the same tactics. Perhaps some people were “scared straight” with these methods, but it’s almost certain that these methods also did a significant amount of mental harm to the people who endured them.
Lodging Homes and later (1857) a Home for the Fallen is opened in Boston --marking the roots of the 19th century inebriate home. As inebriate homes spread, they will spawn several alcoholic mutual aid societies such as the Godwin Association.
By the 1870s’ the New York State Inebriate Asylum, the first in the country, is opened in Binghamton, NY. A growing network of inebriate asylums will treat alcoholism and addiction to a growing list of other drugs: opium, morphine, cocaine, chloral, ether, and chloroform. The opening of the Martha Washington Home in Chicago marks the first institution in America that specialized in the treatment of inebriate women. Jerry McAuley opens the Water Street Mission in New York City, marking the beginning of the urban mission movement. This movement, spread across America by the Salvation Army, caters its message and services to the "Skid Row." The urban missions will birth such alcoholics’ mutual aid societies as the United Order of Ex-Boozers. The missions are linked to religiously-oriented, rural inebriate colonies.
In the 1880s’ cocaine is recommended by Sigmund Freud and a number of American physicians in the treatment of alcoholism and morphine addiction. Bottled home cures for the alcohol and drug habits abound; most will be later exposed to contain alcohol, opium, morphine, cocaine and cannabis.[ The treatment was developed from a partnership with John Oughton, an Irish chemist, and a merchant named Curtis Judd.("Fargo, N.D., History Exhibition") The institute attempted to treat alcoholism as a disease. Patients who were cured using this treatment were honored as "graduates" and asked to promote the cure. Dr. Keeley became wealthy through the popularity of the institute and its well-known slogan, “Drunkenness is a disease and I can cure it.” His work foreshadowed later work that would attribute a physiological nature to alcoholism.
By 1900, as inebriate homes and asylums close, alcoholics are relegated to city "drunk tanks," "cells" in "foul wards" of public hospitals, and the backwards of aging "insane asylums." Wealthy alcoholics/addicts will continue to seek discrete detoxification in private sanatoria known as "jitter joints," "jag farms" or "dip shops."